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Título: Kernel characterization and starch morphology in five varieties of Peruvian Andean maize
Autor(es): Salvador-Reyes, Rebeca
Ferrari, Roseli Aparecida

Palavras-chave: Floury maize
Sweet maize
Starchy grain
Pigmented cereal
Data do documento: 2021
Editor: Elsevier
Citação: Food Research International, v. 140, 2021, 110044. Doi 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.110044.
Resumo: Peruvian Andean maize (PAM) has been commonly used as an ingredient that confers color, flavor, and texture in culinary. Nevertheless, no studies are focusing on agro-industrial interest characteristics to develop new products. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological characteristics of kernels and the starch granule morphology of the five main PAM varieties: Chullpi, Piscorunto, Giant Cuzco, Sacsa, and Purple. PAM’s characterization was performed according to the official methods, and its morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physically, the varieties of larger kernels (Giant Cuzco and Sacsa) presented a higher 1000-kernel weight and a lower hectoliter weight than those of smaller size (Piscorunto, Purple, and Chullpi). Nutritionally, PAM had higher ether extract (5%) and ash (2%) contents than other pigmented maizes. Likewise, they presented more significant amounts of essential amino acids, as leucine (10 mg/g protein) and tryptophan (up to 2 mg/g protein); unsaturated fatty acids, oleic (30%) and linoleic (53%); and minerals, as magnesium (104 mg/100 g). SEM showed that endosperm structure and starch morphology vary according to maize types and their grain location. Starch granules of floury PAM varieties were small and polyhedral in the sub-aleurone endosperm, whereas those of the central area were bigger and spherical. In Chullpi, it was observed a portion of vitreous endosperm with a compact structure. The low protein content (8.3%) and the endosperm structure of floury varieties of PAM influenced their pasting properties. Their pasting temperature was <69 to 71 ◦C>, peak viscosity < 3200 to 4400 cP>, and seatback <1250 to 1706 cP>; therefore, they do not retrograde easily. The results suggest that PAM has characteristics that would help elaborate regional products with added value, such as soups, willows, beverages, and porridges.
ISSN: 0963-9969
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